The SOLAS Convention

The Safety Of Life At Sea Convention, known as SOLAS is usually consider the bible of the Merchant navy.

On this blog we will use many Codes or regulations related to the SOLAS. For this reason, today we are going to see how this Convention is structured.

Although the Convention itself includes other chapters and annexs, here we are going to enumerated the fourteen chapters of the SOLAS (soon it will be fifteen with the inclusion of the Chapter XIII regarding Polar navigation):

  • Chapter I. General provisions.
    • Part A: Applications, definitions, etc. (Regulations 1 – 5).
    • Part B: Surveys and certificates (Regulations 6 – 20).
    • Part C: Casualties (Regulation 21).
  • Chapter II-1. Construction – Structure, subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations.
    • Part A: General (Regulations 1 – 3).
    • Part A-1: Structure of ships (Regulations 3-1 – 3-12).
    • Part B: Subdivision and stability (Regulation 4).
    • Part B-1: Stability (Regulations 5 – 8-1).
    • Part B-2: Subdivision, watertight an weathertight integrity (Regulations 9 – 17-1).
    • Part B-3: Subdivision load line assignment for passenger ships (Regulation 18).
    • Part B-4: Stability management (Regulations 19 – 25).
    • Part C: Machinery installations (Regulations 26 – 39).
    • Part D: Electrical installations (Regulations 40 – 45).
    • Part E: Additional requirements for periodically unattended machinery spaces (Regulations 46 – 54).
    • Part F: Alternative design and arrangements (Regulation 55).
  • Chapter II-2. Construction – Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction.
    • Part A: General (Regulations 1 – 3).
    • Part B: Prevention of fire and explosion (Regulations 4 – 6).
    • Part C: Suppression of fire (Regulations 7 – 11).
    • Part D: Escape (Regulations 12 – 13).
    • Part E: Operational requirements (Regulations 14 – 16).
    • Part F: Alternative design arrangements (Regulation 17).
    • Part G: Special requirements (Regulations 18 – 23).
  • Chapter III. Life-saving appliances.
    • Part A: General (Regulations 1 – 5).
    • Part B: Requirements for ships and life-saving appliances (Regulations 6 – 37).
    • Part C: Alternative design and arrangements (Regulation 38).
  • Chapter IV. Radiocommunications.
    • Part A: General (Regulations 1 – 4-1).
    • Part B: Undertakings by Contracting Governments (Regulations 5 – 5-1).
    • Part C: Ship requirements (Regulations 6 – 18).
  • Chapter V. Safety of navigation (Regulations 1 – 35).
  • Chapter VI. Carriage of cargoes and oil fuels.
    • Part A: General provisions (Regulation 1 – 5-2).
    • Part B: Special provisions for solid bulk cargoes (Regulations 6 – 7).
    • Part C: Carriage of grain (Regulations 8 – 9).
  • Chapter VII. Carriage of dangerous goods.
    • Part A: Carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form (Regulations 1 – 6).
    • Part A-1: Carriage of dangerous goods in solid form in bulk (Regulations 7 – 7-5).
    • Part B: Construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous liquid chemicals in bulk (Regulations 8 – 10).
    • Part C: Construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk (Regulation 11 – 13).
    • Part D: Special requirements for the carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes on board ships (Regulations 14 – 16).
  • Chapter VIII. Nuclear ships (Regulations 1 – 12).
  • Chapter IX. Management for the safe operation of ships (Regulations 1 – 6).
  • Chapter X. Safety measures for high-speed craft (Regulations 1 – 3).
  • Chapter XI-1. Special measures to enhance maritime safety (Regulations 1 – 6).
  • Chapter XI-2. Special measures to enhance maritime security (Regulations 1 – 13).
  • Chapter XII. Additional safety measures for bulk carriers (Regulations 1 – 14).
  • Chapter XIII. Verification of compliance. This chapter was made mandatory on 1 January 2016.
  • Chapter XIV. Safety measures for ships operating in polar waters. This is the newest chapter in the SOLAS convention and it makes mandatory from 1 January 2017.

The IMO Assembly

In the International Maritime Organization, the highest governing body is the Assembly.

It is formed for all members of the Organization and they meet once each two years normally, but the Assembly will meet on an extraordinary session when necessary.

Once of its function is to approve the work program of the Organization and to vote for the budget of the Organization. That way, it determines the financial arrangements for the IMO.

Apart for this, the Assembly is also in charge of selecting the members of the Council. This selection will be maintained until the next ordinary meeting.

By the time I am writing this post, the last session of the Assembly was from the 27th of November to the 6th of December, and it was the number 30.

On this session they adopted the strategic plan from 2018 until 2023.

What does that mean?

It means that they set the direction that has to be followed by the Organization on the following years.

For example, once of the things that everybody is paying more attention to is to respond to climate change, so, on its session, they set a point inside the strategic plan which is to respond to climate change.

  • Respond to climate change – developing appropriate, ambitious and realistic solutions to minimize shipping’s contribution to air pollution and its impact on climate change.

Apart of this strategic plan, the Assembly also did some announcements, like the one where they welcomed the second phase of the Polar code, or the one where they condemned the launching of missiles without warning.

Finally, on the memo, we can find a list of the resolutions of the Assembly adopted by this governing body.

To sum up

So, according to what we have seen already on this blog, we can summarize that the Assembly is the highest governing body of the IMO.

The Assembly chooses the Council, which is the executive body of the IMO, and it is in charge of supervising the work of the Organization.

The Council delegates into the Committees for fulfilling the tasks of the Organization. Those jobs are divided into five main committees.

Also, finally, there are some subcommittees that will help the main committees to fulfill their tasks.

The IMO Council

The IMO Council is the executive body of the Organization.

This organ is responsible for supervising the work of the Organization, that is, the work of the Committees. As we will see in the next post, they depend on the Assembly, because it is the highest governing body of the IMO.

In order to achieve its purpose, the Council meets twice a year (and of course whenever it is necessary on an Extraordinary Session). Those meetings are hold on July and on December every year.

Who forms it?

The IMO Council is formed by 40 members of the Organization and it’s elected by the Assembly every two years. Those 40 members are classified on the following categories:

  1. Category a: 10 states with the largest interest in providing international shipping services.
  2. Category b: 10 states with the largest interest in international seaborne trade.
  3. Category c: 20 states nor elected on any on the other categories with special interests in maritime transport or navigation; or those whose election to the Council will ensure the representation of all major geographic areas of the world.

What do they do?

As we said before, the Council is in charge for supervising the work of the IMO and it’s the executive body of the Organization but, can we be more specific?

  • The Council will submit to the Assembly the work program of the Committees.
  • They will submit for approval to the Assembly the budget of the Organization.
  • The Council will elect the Secretary-General.
  • Between every Assembly session, the Council will be the head body of the Organization except on those issues regarding recommending to Members for adoption of regulations and guidelines.

Lifejackets: Performance capacities and elements

As we saw in our last post regarding lifejackets, they are the most known appliance for saving our life. Since they were invented in 1854, this device for keeping us afloat at sea has changed very much.

Last week we saw that the Code that regulates how Lifejackets must be constructed is the Life Saving Appliances Code (best known as LSA Code). On this Code we saw the construction requirements for lifejackets and how are lifejackets classified.

This week, using the LSA Code, we will answer the following questions:

  • Performance capacities of lifejackets.
  • Elements on a lifejacket.

Performance capacities of lifejackets

According to the Code, a Lifejacket will lift our mouth out of the water even if we are exhausted or unconscious. Also, if we have passed out or if we are close to and we are unlucky enough to end face-downed, the lifejacket itself will turn our body.

When I was taking for my first time the basic safety certificate course, during practice, I remember I said myself “Ok, regulation must be true so, let’s try” and I turned with my face on the water I act like if I was dead… in a few seconds I was already turned face-up. Awesome. So I can tell you, this thing works (in case you had doubts).

Of course, the lifejacket will also maintain us in that face-up position while waves hit us without being necessary for us to do anything special, being possible to remain in the fetal position 

In case of the lifejackets for children and infants, besides the requirements we have told already, there will be some exceptions like in the case of the donning where it will be possible to require assistance to put the lifejacket on.

In addition, the requirements for a lifejacket are flexible when we are speaking of an infant or child lifejacket because, according to the Code, it prevails the facilitation of being rescued, being secured to a caretaker, keep the user as drier as possible and permitting the caretaker to control hear loss on the children or infant.

Elements on a lifejacket

  • 2.2.1.5.4. The method of securing the lifejacket to the wearer has quick and positive means of closure that do not require tying of knots.
  • 2.2.1.13. Each lifejacket shall be provided with means of securing a light as specified in the Code.
  • 2.2.1.14. Each lifejacket shall be fitted with a whistle firmly secured by lanyard.
  • 2.2.1.15. Lifejacket lights and whistles shall be selected and secured to the lifejacket in such a way that their performance in combination is not degraded.
  • 2.2.1.16. A lifejacket shall be provided with a releasable buoyant line or other means to secure it to a lifejacket worn by another person in the water.
  • 2.2.1.17. A lifejacket shall be provided with a suitable means to allow a rescuer to lift the wearer from the water into a survival craft or rescue boat.

 

Lifejackets: Construction requirements and types

Lifejackets are the most known appliance for saving our life. Since they were invented in 1854, this device for keeping us afloat at sea has changed very much.

The Code that regulates how Lifejackets must be constructed is the Life Saving Appliances Code (best known as LSA Code). On this Code we will find all the questions we seek to solve in this post:

  • Construction requirements for lifejackets.
  • Types of lifejackets.

Construction requirements for lifejackets

The LSA Code, on its chapter II “Personal life-saving appliances”, section 2.2 “Lifejackets”, includes all the requirement for a standard lifejacket.

Regarding the construction requirements, we would find that, after one demonstration, everybody must be capable of putting this equipment on within a period of 1 min without assistance but, what is more interesting is that without any demonstration nor instruction, at least the 75% of the people who are not familiarized with this equipment, will be capable of putting it on in the same period of time.

Besides, even though there is only one way of fitting the lifejacket correctly, somebody who put it on inside-out won’t suffer any injures.

Logically it will be comfortable to wear and, in case it is necessary to jump into the water, you will be capable of doing it safely (this is, holding on to the lifejacket) from a height of at least 4.5 m.

Also, in case our lifejacket sets in fire or we spend many time at sea using it, there’s nothing to worry about because the requirements are, as follows:

  • A lifejacket shall not sustain burning or melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 s (2.2.1.1).
  • An adult lifejacket shall allow the person wearing it to swim a short distance and to board a survival craft (2.2.1.7).
  • A lifejacket shall have buoyance which is not reduced by more than 5% after 24hours submersion in fresh water (2.2.1.11).

Types of lifejackets

Lifejacket marking Infant Child Adult
Weight (kg) Less than 15 15 or more but less than 43 43 or more
Height (cm) Less than 100 100 or more but less than 155 155 or more

Exist a type of Lifejacket known as XXL Lifejacket, but the Code is not contemplated it directly. The Code says:

“If an adult lifejacket is not designed to fit persons weighing up to 140 Kg and with chest girth of up to 1750 mm, suitable accessories shall be available to allow it to be secured to such persons” (2.2.1.3).

If the Lifejacket doesn’t say the opposite, we can assume that it is designed to fill the prescription on 2.2.1.3.

Will all this construction requirements, it is logical to ask ourselves “ok but, what is capable of doing a Lifejacket?”

The IMO

The IMO are the initials of the International Maritime Organization. This organism was created by the Organization of the United Nations in 1948 and it is in charge of the safety and security at sea and also of the environmental safety of the seas.

The number of Member States on the IMO is currently 172 (2017) and it also counts with 3 Associate Members.

What’s the difference between a member state and an associate member?

If we check the FAQs of the IMO webpage, we will find how to become a member of the IMO:

How can I become a member of the IMO?

“Only a country can become a Member of IMO.”

Then, what is an associate member?

If we see the Member list of the page, the 3 Associate Members are:

  • Faroes.
  • Hong Kong, China.
  • Macao, China.

The three of them have one thing in common, and it is that they are autonomous countries/territories, which depend on another sovereign state.

So, Associate Members will be those territories that depend on a sovereign state which is a Member of the IMO.

This concept can be described in the Convention on the International Maritime Organization (IMO), part 3, article 8:

 “Article 8

Any Territory or group of Territories to which the Convention has been made applicable under Article 72, by the Member having responsibility for its international relations or by the United Nations, may become an Associate Member of the Organization by notification in writing given by such Member or by the United Nations, as the case may be, to the Secretary General of the United Nations.”

What is the structure of the IMO?

The Organization consists of an Assembly, a Council, five main committees and a number of sub-committees for supporting the work of the main committees.

Those main committees are:

  • The Maritime Safety Committee.
  • The Marine Environment Protection Committee.
  • The Legal Committee.
  • The Technical Cooperation Committee.
  • The Facilitation Committee.